Strengthening Buildings for Earthquakes

Earthquakes cause sideways forces on buildings (Explain).

These are some of the structural systems used to resist sideways forces.

Horizontal structural systems

Usually floors and roofs. They share the sideways forces on the building between its vertical structural members. They include:

Vertical structural systems

Made up from columns, beams, walls and bracing. They transfer the sideways forces on the building to the ground. They include:

Note ! The combined structural systems in a building must be able to resist sideways force from any direction.
from Bristol University